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PLASTIC DICTIONARY
SPLACH NETWORK

PLASTIC

That product that contains as a component a polymer that is produced from petroleum or raw materials of renewable origin, either totally or mixed.

 

Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019.

Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

POLYMER

Chemical compound, natural or synthetic, formed by polymerization and consisting essentially of repeating structural units.

Web:www.rae.es

MICRO PLASTIC
PRIMARY

They are pieces of plastic with a diameter of less than 5 millimeters, which are intentionally added to some cosmetics, cleaning and personal care products.

Source: Report: National Strategy for the management of marine waste and microplastics. Ministry of the Environment

Web:https://mma.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Estrategia-Nacional-para-la-gestion-de-residuos-marinos-y-microplasticos.pdf

MICRO PLASTIC
SECONDARY

They are plastic pieces with a diameter of less than 5 millimeters, which are generated from the degradation of other larger plastic pieces. 


Source: Report: National Strategy for the management of marine waste and microplastics. Ministry of the Environment


Web: https://mma.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Estrategia-Nacional-para-la-gestion-de-residuos-marinos-y-microplasticos.pdf

ELDER BROTHER
PLASTIC

They are tiny plastic particles (1–100 nm) and can be divided into nanoplastics of primary origin and secondary origin. Those of primary origin are those that enter the environment in their original size (for example, personal hygiene products, cosmetics, clothing fibers, ink for 3D printers), while nanoplastics of secondary origin owe their size thanks to the fragmentation of larger plastics (macro/microplastics). 


Source: Andrady, 2011; Cole et al., 2011; Bergami et al., 2016; Gigault et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2018.

THERMOS
PLASTIC

A family of plastics that can melt when heated and harden when cooled. These characteristics, which give these materials their name, are reversible. That is, they can be reheated, shaped and cooled several times.


Source: Report: Plastic Europe: Plastics – the Facts 2020 An analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data.

 
Web: https://plasticseurope.org/knowledge-hub/plastics-the-facts-2020/

THERMOS
STABLE

A family of plastics that undergo a chemical transformation when heated, creating a three-dimensional network. After heating and molding it is not possible to re-melt them to give them a new shape.


Source: Report: Plastic Europe: Plastics – the Facts 2020 An analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data.

 
Web: https://plasticseurope.org/knowledge-hub/plastics-the-facts-2020/

ORGANIC
PLASTICS

They are manufactured in whole or in part from renewable biological resources. For example, sugarcane is processed to make ethylene, which in turn is used to make polyethylene. Starch can be processed to produce lactic acid and subsequently polylactic acid (PLA).


Web: https://legacy.plasticseurope.org/en/about-plastics/what-are-plastics

RESINS
EPOXY

They have been used for about fifty years, and are one of the most successful families of plastics. Its physical state can change from a low-viscosity liquid to a high-melting solid, meaning a wide range of materials with unique properties can be made. At home, we find them in soft drink cans and special containers, where they can be used as a coating to protect the content and preserve the flavor. They are also used as a protective coating for everything from beds, lawn chairs, office and hospital furniture, to grocery carts and bicycles. Also in special paints to protect the surfaces of ships, oil platforms and wind turbines from inclement weather.


Web: https://legacy.plasticseurope.org/en/about-plastics/what-are-plastics

PRODUCT
DISPOSABLE

One that has been designed to be used on one occasion. It will be disposable if the establishment that delivers it provides an occasion for use, although it may be given additional uses outside said establishment. 


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

PLASTICS
ORGANIC
DEGRADABLE

They are plastics that under certain conditions microorganisms degrade and convert into water, carbon dioxide (or methane) and biomass. To guide consumers in their decisions and inspire confidence in the biodegradability of plastic, universal standards have been implemented, new materials have been developed and a logo for compostables has been created.


Web: https://legacy.plasticseurope.org/en/about-plastics/what-are-plastics

PLASTICS
TECHNICIANS

They offer higher performance than standard materials, and are ideal for technical applications that require hard plastics. They have gradually replaced traditional technical materials, such as wood or metal, in many applications, because they not only outperform them in strength/weight ratio and other properties, but are also much easier to fabricate, especially when it comes to complicated shapes.


Web: https://legacy.plasticseurope.org/es/about-plastics/what-are-plastics

RESIN

Chemically or physically modified synthesized polymer to create a plastic. 


Source: Final Report: Estimate of the decrease in single-use plastic waste as a result of its regulation. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

Single-use plastics "PUSU"

Disposable plastic products, such as glasses, cups, bowls, cutlery (fork, spoon, knife), mixers, straws, sachets, plates, containers or trays of prepared food and their accessory containers, lids or others that meet the purpose of individualized products. Specifically, they are the products that the proposed law on single-use plastics seeks to regulate. 


Source: Final Report: Estimation of the decrease in plastic waste from a single uare the product of its regulation.

 
Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

POLYMERIZATION

Reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form another in which structural units of the original molecules are repeated. For example: to make plastic, polymerization is very important. In a polymerization reactor, monomers such as ethylene and propylene join together to form long polymer chains. Each polymer has its own properties, its structure and its dimensions depending on the type of basic monomer that has been used.


Web: www.rae.es ; https://legacy.plasticseurope.org/en/about-plastics/what-are-plastics/how-plastics-are-made

PETROLEUM

The word petroleum comes from the Latin "petroleum", which means "stone oil". It is itself a natural mineral oil. In itself, it is a set of complex chemical compounds whose main composition is Hydrogen (hydro) and Carbon (carbide). It is also a non-renewable resource. It is caused by the decomposition of organic substances produced by the action of microorganisms, initially and mainly by the increase in temperature, by burial and time (millions of years). 


Web: https://www.enap.cl/pag/241/1158/historia_petroleo

MULTILAYER PLASTIC

A material or object made up of two or more layers of plastic material.


Source: Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011 


Web: https://www.boe.es/doue/2011/012/L00001-00089.pdf

COMPOUND
MULTILAYER

A material or object made up of two or more layers of different types of materials, at least one of which is a plastic layer.


Source: Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011 


Web: https://www.boe.es/doue/2011/012/L00001-00089.pdf

ADDITIVES

Additives are substances added to plastic in the manufacture of plastic materials and objects, as they provide certain physical and technological effects to plastic. Its presence in the final material or object is intentional. Additives must be subject to a risk assessment, and their use in the manufacture of plastic materials and objects must be subject to authorization.


Source: Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011 


Web: https://www.boe.es/doue/2011/012/L00001-00089.pdf

PLASTICIZERS

A plasticizer is a substance that when added to a material, usually a plastic, results in a product that is flexible, resistant, and easier to handle. Among the most used plasticizers are dibutyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. 


Source: Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011 


Web: https://www.boe.es/doue/2011/012/L00001-00089.pdf; https://www.plasticisers.org/resources/faq/

LEACHING

In chemistry, leaching is treating a complex substance, such as a mineral, with a suitable solvent to separate its soluble from insoluble parts. Regarding organic matter leachates, they are formed during the fermentation and decomposition processes of accumulated organic matter, mainly in landfills. The filtration of water from rain circulates among the waste and drags chemical compounds and biological materials, generating a polluting effluent. 


Web: www.rae.es; telwesa.com

TYPES OF PLASTIC
NOMENCLATURE

pets
polyethylene terephthalate
(Polyethylene Terephthalate)

It is known with the number 1 for recognition and recycling processes. Its properties serve so that it can be in contact with food. It has physical resistance, thermal properties, lightness barrier properties and chemical resistance. Its most common uses are for beverage containers, soft drinks and water, food containers (dressings, jams, jellies, creams, pharmaceuticals, etc.) 


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

HDPE
High Density Polyethylene

It is known by the number 2 for recognition and recycling processes. Its properties are characterized by being an inflexible plastic, resistant to chemicals, opaque, easy to pigment, manufacture and handle. It softens at 75ºC. Its most common uses are in some supermarket bags, freezer bags, milk containers, ice cream, juices, shampoo, chemicals
and detergents, buckets, lids, etc.


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

pvc
polyvloride
vinyl (Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride PCV-P) 

It is known by the number 3 for recognition and recycling processes. Its properties are characterized by being a hard, resistant plastic, it can be clear, it can be used with solvents, it softens at 80ºC. Flexible, clear, elastic, can be used with solvents. Its most common uses are in containers for plumbing, pipes, "blister packs", containers in general, hoses, shoe soles, cables, watch straps.


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

LDPE
Low density polyethylene (Low density Polyethylene)

It is known by the number 4 for recognition and recycling processes. Its properties are characterized by being a soft, flexible, translucent plastic, it softens at 70ºC, it scratches easily. Its most common uses are to produce packaging films, garbage bags, and laboratory containers.


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

PP
Polypropylene (Polypropylene) 

It is known by the number 5 for recognition and recycling processes. Its properties are characterized by being a hard but still flexible plastic, softens at 140ºC, translucent, solvent-based, versatile. Its most common uses are in bags for frying, light bulbs, garden equipment, food boxes, packing tapes, containers for veterinary and pharmaceutical use.


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

PS
Polystyrene (Polystyrene) 

It is known by the number 6 for recognition and recycling processes. Its properties are characterized by being a clear, rigid, opaque plastic, it breaks easily, it softens at 95ºC. Affected by fats and solvents. Its most common uses are in plastic cutlery, glass imitations, toys, cosmetic containers.


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

PS-E
Expanded Polystyrene (Expanded Polystyrene)

It is known by the number 6 for recognition and recycling processes. Its properties are characterized by being a light, spongy plastic that absorbs energy and maintains temperatures. Cups for hot drinks, takeaway food containers, dry ice containers, packaging to protect fragile merchandise.


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

OTHER PLASTICS

OTHERS
(SAN, ABS, PC, Nylon).

They are known with the number 7 for recognition and recycling processes. S are characterized by being plastics that include many other resins and materials. Its properties depend on the combination of plastics. And its uses are found in cars, coolers, electronics, parts for packaging.

 
Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

CONCEPTS FOR THE VALORIZATION OF WASTE

WASTE
DOMICILIARY

Solid waste, rubbish, waste or rubbish generated in homes and in establishments such as residential buildings, commercial premises, food outlets, hotels, educational establishments and prisons.

Source: Final Report: Estimate of the decrease in single-use plastic waste as a result of its regulation. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

WASTE
ASSIMILABLE SOLIDS
HOME

Solid waste, garbage, waste or waste generated in industrial processes or other activities, which are not considered hazardous waste according to current sanitary regulations and which, in addition, due to their quantity, composition and physical, chemical and bacteriological characteristics, can be disposed of in a Sanitary Landfill without interfering with its normal operation.


Source: Final Report: Estimate of the decrease in single-use plastic waste as a result of its regulation. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

MATERIAL
REUSABLE

That product of china, glass, metal, wood, clay, plastic or others that They have been designed to be used multiple times.


Source: Report Proposal to limit the generation of disposable products and regulate plastics. 2019. 


Web: https://chile.oceana.org/informes/

REP Law (Extended Producer Responsibility)

It is an economic instrument for waste management. It obliges the producers of certain products to organize and finance the management of waste derived from the products they place on the market.


Source: Report Law No. 20,920, Framework for Waste Management, Extended Producer Responsibility and Promotion of Recycling. Ministry of the Environment.

GENERATOR

Who discards or must discard = consumer for the REP law.


Source: Report Law No. 20,920, Framework for Waste Management, Extended Producer Responsibility and Promotion of Recycling. Ministry of the Environment.

ECODESIGN

Introduction of environmental aspects in the design of products, after the quantitative and qualitative analysis of all the stages of the life cycle of said product.


Source: Report Law No. 20,920, Framework for Waste Management, Extended Producer Responsibility and Promotion of Recycling. Ministry of the Environment.

MANAGER

Who performs waste management operations, that is, collection, storage, transportation and treatment.


Source: Report Law No. 20,920, Framework for Waste Management, Extended Producer Responsibility and Promotion of Recycling. Ministry of the Environment.

FACILITY
RECEPTION AND STORAGE

Green points, clean points and collection centers.


Source: Report Law No. 20,920, Framework for Waste Management, Extended Producer Responsibility and Promotion of Recycling. Ministry of the Environment.

ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT

Better stewardship for the environment.


Source: Report Law No. 20,920, Framework for Waste Management, Extended Producer Responsibility and Promotion of Recycling. Ministry of the Environment.

VALORIZATION

Waste recovery actions: preparation for reuse, recycling and energy recovery.


Source: Report Law No. 20,920, Framework for Waste Management, Extended Producer Responsibility and Promotion of Recycling. Ministry of the Environment.

RECYCLING

Submit a used material to a process so that it can be used again. 


Web: www.rae.es

stages of
recycling
mechanic:

1)    Pickup: Collection of end-of-life plastic products from separate and mixed waste streams
2)    First classification: Separation of waste by type of material (plastics, aluminum, tin, cardboard, paper, etc.) and later by type of polymer
3)   Shredding: Fragmentation of plastics into smaller pieces
4)    Washing: Shredded plastics are washed to remove dirt and dust
5)    Second classification and control:A second classification and control of the plastics is carried out before sending them to extrusion 
6)    Extrusion: The plastic flakes are eventually turned into pellets ready for use in the manufacture of new products.
.


Source: Report: Plastic Europe: Plastics – the Facts 2020 An analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data.

 
Web: https://plasticseurope.org/knowledge-hub/plastics-the-facts-2020/

CIRCULAR ECONOMY

The circular economy is a model of production and consumption that involves sharing, renting, reusing, repairing, renewing and recycling existing materials and products as many times as possible to create added value. In this way, the life cycle of the products is extended.


Web: (https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/es/headlines/economy/20151201STO05603/economia-circular-definicion-importancia-y-beneficios#:~:text=La%20econom%C3%ADa%20circular%20es%20un,de%20los%20productos%20se%20extiende.)&nbs p;

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